Other government support

In South Africa, the R&D Tax Incentive is a major form of government fiscal support for private-sector R&D. There is a range of direct funding programmes, such as the Support Programme for Industrial Innovation (SPII) and the Industrial Innovation Partnership Programme (IIP), and grants/loans and equity support provided through the Technology Innovation Agency (TIA), which target market-ready technology development and commercialisation.  The Technology for Human Resources in Industry Programme (THRIP) fosters R&D collaboration between private-sector companies and universities and science councils.